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Monday, January 31, 2022
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In Japanese, suru する is a verb with several complicated uses: it translates to "to do X" as an auxiliary verb that turns nouns (called verbal nouns in this case) into verbs (called suru-verbs); it translates to "to make X become Y" as a lexically causative eventivizer forming an ergative pair with naru なる, "to become," and "to decide on," "to choose," and "to pretend that" various things for various reasons; it can translate to "to do stuff like" when used with the tari-form; it translates to English copulas of sensory stimuli such as "feels," "smells," "sounds," "tastes" as an intransitive cognitive stative verb in a double subject construction with "feeling," "smell," "sound," or "taste" as its small subject, as well with other nouns for feelings; it similarly translates to "to feel X" when used with a null-marked psychomime, to "to make a sound" when used with an onomatopoeia, and all sorts of meanings with other mimetic words; when preceded by the to と particle it can quote what someone else determined, it can make a stipulation in a contract or law, establish a hypothetical scenario, hint the passage of time with mimetic words, and in relative clauses it can mean something has something else for something else-else; it translates to "to try to" when preceded by the to particle after a volitional form; it translates to "to wear X" when used with some clothing terms, and more generally to refer to one's appearance translating as "to have X" with terms for body parts; it translates to "to be an X," when used with an occupation or type of person; it can mean to use the functions of different body parts; it can mean to cover things with different covering objects; it can mean to be worth a monetary value or to pass an amount of time. For example:

  • kekkon
    結婚
    Marriage.
    (a verbal noun.)
  • kekkon φ suru
    結婚する
    To do "a marriage."
    To marry.
    (a suru verb.)
  • kanojo ga {yome ni} naru
    彼女が嫁になる
    She will become {a bride}.
    (unaccusative eventivizer.)
  • ore ga kanojo wo {yome ni} suru
    俺が彼女を嫁にする
    I will make her become {a bride}.
    I will make her {[my] bride}.
    (causative eventivizer.)
  • {souji shitari}, {ryouri shitari} suru
    掃除したり料理したりする
    To do stuff like {cleaning}, {cooking}.
    (tari-form.)
  • soto wa {ame no nioi ga suru}
    外は雨の匂いがする
    Outside {gives off a rain smell}.
    Outside {smells of rain}.
    (cognitive copula.)
  • wakuwaku φ suru
    ワクワクする
    To feel excited.
    (psychomimetic reduplication.)
  • zaazaa φ suru
    ザーザーする
    To make a zaazaa noise.
    (onomatopoeia.)
  • pikapika φ suru
    ピカピカする
    To sparkle.
    (phenomime.)
  • muzai to sareta
    無罪とされた
    [He] was determined to be innocent [by the judge].
    (cited determination.)
  • {Akiresu ga {kame wo oi-kakeru} mono} to suru
    アキレスが亀を追いかけるものとする
    Let's say, hypothetically, that {Achilles {chases the turtle}}.
    (hypothesis.)
  • {kugi wo buki to suru} kishi
    釘を武器とする騎士
    A knight [who] {has a nail for weapon}.
    A knight [whose] {weapon is a nail}.
    (to have as.)
  • {nigeyou} to shite-iru!
    逃げようとしている!
    [He] is trying {to escape}!
    (with volitional form.)
  • masuku wo suru
    マスクをする
    To wear a mask.
    (appearance with clothing.)
  • kinpatsu wo suru
    金髪をする
    To have blonde hair.
    (appearance with body part.)
  • shousetsuka wo shite-imasu
    小説家をしています
    [I]'m working as a novelist.
    [I]'m a novelist.
    (occupation.)
  • takara wo te ni suru
    宝を手にする
    To obtain the treasure.
    (function of body part.)
  • mimi ni sen wo suru
    耳に栓をする
    To plug one's ears.
    (covering object.)
  • {reitouko de yaku san-juu-pun sureba} deki-agari
    冷凍庫で約30分すれば出来上がり
    {After thirty minutes in the freezer}, [it] is done.
    (taking time.)

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Manga: Kaguya-sama wa Kokurasetai ~Tensai-Tachi no Ren'ai Zunousen~ かぐや様は告らせたい~天才たちの恋愛頭脳戦~ (Chapter 110, 石上優は語りたい)
Friday, December 31, 2021

In Japanese, a "suru verb," or "する verb," suru doushi スル動詞, refers to when a noun (called the verbal noun) becomes a verb by attaching the auxiliary verb suru する to it.  For example:

  • kekkon
    結婚
    Marriage.
    • This is a verbal noun.
  • kekkon suru
    結婚する
    To do "a marriage."
    To marry.
    • This is a suru verb.

The terms sa-hen doushi サ変動詞 (abbreviated sa-hen サ変), and sa-gyou henkaku katsuyou サ行変格活用, "irregular sa-row conjugation," typically refer to suru verbs (exceptions exist, like ohasu おはす, which is also considered sa-hen).

This article will talk about these, and other verbal noun + suru usage, such as (noun in bold):

  • nani shiteru?
    してる?
    What are [you] doing?
    (interrogative usage.)
  • kakure mo nige mo shinai
    隠れ逃げもしない
    [I won't] hide or run away.
    (noun form of non-suru verb usage.)
  • sore wa zettai ni shimasen
    それは絶対にしません
    [I] absolutely won't do that.
    (pronominal usage.)
  • sonna koto shite wa ikenai
    そんなことしてはいけない
    [You] shouldn't do something like that.
    (semantically light noun usage.)
  • shitenai yo
    してないよ
    [I] haven't done [it].
    (null anaphora usage.)
Manga: Azumanga Daioh あずまんが大王 (Volume 1, Page 35, コンピューター!)
    Tuesday, November 30, 2021

    In Japanese, sa can mean various things: it can mean "I don't know;" it can be used to insert a pause mid-sentence; it a sentence ending particle used to clarify something; it can be used to invite people to do things; it's a suffix used to create "~ness" nouns out of adjectives; among other uses. It's sometimes pronounced with a long vowel, as saa or .

    Manga: School Rumble, スクールランブル (Chapter 16, Wild Party)
    Sunday, October 31, 2021

    In Japanese, the sa-form, sa-kei サ形, is a form of adjectives that ends in ~sa ~さ, and works like "~ness," "~less," or "~ity" in English, a noun referring to "how much" of a given quality something has. The resulting word is also known as a sa-meishi さ名詞, "sa-noun." For example:

    • aimai-sa
      曖昧
      Vagueness. Vaguity.
      How vague [it] is.
    • neko no kawai-sa
      猫の可愛
      The cuteness of cats.
      How cute cats are.
    • umi no kirei-sa
      海の綺麗
      The prettiness of the sea.
      How pretty the sea is.
    • un no na-sa
      運のな
      The nonexistentialness of luck.
      The lack of luck.
      How little luck [someone] has.
    Manga: School Rumble, スクールランブル (Chapter 70, Three Violent People)
    Thursday, September 30, 2021

    In anime, sometimes when a character sprinkles a food with salt, spice, or something like that, they do it in a specific pose, which is a meme called "salt bae," in Japanese known as shio-furi ojisan 塩振りおじさん, "salt-sprinkling old man," among other names.

    Left: Gob'ichi, ゴブイチ
    Right: Haruna ハルナ
    Anime: Tensei shitara Slime Datta Ken, 転生したらスライムだった件 (Episode 20)
    Tuesday, August 31, 2021

    In Japanese, means shime 締め, "fastening," "tightening," the noun form of the ichidan verb shimeru 締める, "to fasten," "to tighten." To elaborate: this weird-looking symbol is just a quick way to hand-write shime.

    Manga: Gekkan Shoujo Nozaki-kun 月刊少女野崎くん (Volume 1, Chapter 2, Page 18, ケガの理由)

    In Japanese, parentheses (), are used in multiple ways: they can show the age, gender or other personal information after someone's name; they represent furigana 振り仮名 (ruby text) in single-line layouts; on the internet, they contain emotes, such as "lol," etc.; they similarly enclose actions in theatrical scripts; they may contain thoughts or other comments; and they surround optional phrases or alternative phrases in grammatical examples.

    Sunday, August 29, 2021

    In Japanese, "brackets," kakko 括弧, refers to symbols that enclose text such as 【】, (), 『』, 「」, 〈〉, 《》. They're generally like English brackets, except that Japanese brackets may get rotated 90 degrees when Japanese is written vertically.

    For [], {} used in examples in this site, see Reading The Examples.

    Wednesday, August 25, 2021

    In this site, example sentences and excerpts typically follow a format of romaji, Japanese, and English translations, with symbols added to the romaji and translation in order to keep the Japanese text unchanged.

    • {kiita} koto φ aru (romaji)
      聞いたことある (Japanese)
      [I] have [the experience of] {hearing about [it]}. (most literal translation.)
      I've read about it. (least literal translation.)

    For reference, this article will list what the symbols found in the examples in this site mean.

    Tuesday, August 24, 2021

    In this site, φ, the Greek letter "phi," is used as a symbol to represent nulls (zeroes) in examples.

    See Reading The Examples for other symbols used in this site.

    In grammatical analysis, "null" is how you refer to something that's not uttered (pronounced or written) but is meaningful nevertheless. They're represented by either φ or ∅ (empty set). For example:

    • ore φ, Tarou φ
      俺、太郎
      I'm Tarou.

    Above, φ represents a null particle (or zero particle) and a null copula (or zero copula). Compare with:

    • ore wa Tarou da
      俺は太郎だ
      (same meaning.)

    Above we have a wa は particle and da だ copula.

    Although the meaning is basically the same, there are nuances between pronouncing wa/da and not pronouncing them. Also, it may look confusing how the copulas "am," "is," "are" show up in the English translation without an equivalent in Japanese, so nulls are useful in this regard.

    In Japanese, a circle (○), maru 丸, has multiple uses: it typically means something is "correct," that an answer is "right." In this case, "wrong" is either an X mark or a check mark (✓), and a triangle (△) is half-right. It's also used as a placeholder, specially to censor words.

    This article is about the circle symbol, not about a "circle," saakuru サークル, in the sense of a group of people that do an activity like drawing doujinshi 同人誌.

    Anime: Bokutachi wa Benkyou ga Dekinai ぼくたちは勉強ができない (Episode 1)
    Anime: Himouto! Umaru-chan 干物妹!うまるちゃん (Episode 1)
    Anime: Nichijou no Zero-wa 日常の0話 (Episode 0, OVA)

    In Japanese, an "X mark" (☓), batsu-jirushi バツ印, typically means an answer is "incorrect," fuseikai 不正解, although it can also mean something is dame 駄目, "not good," NG, "not allowed," "didn't work out." The opposite symbol is a "circle" (○), maru 丸. These symbols are also used as placeholders.

    Anime: Karin かりん (Episode 11)
    Friday, July 30, 2021

    In anime, Gainax pose, or Gainax stance, in Japanese: gaina-dachi ガイナ立ち, literally "Gaina-standing," refers to a way for a character, usually a giant robot, or giant robot pilot, to stand imposingly as it waits for battle: with arms crossed and legs apart, due to its prominent use by animation studio Gainax, ガイナックス.(dic.pixiv.net, tvtropes.org)

    Anime: Top wo Nerae! Gunbuster, トップをねらえ!GunBuster (Episodes 4, 5)
    Anime: Top wo Nerae 2! Diebuster, トップをねらえ2!DieBuster (Episodes 2, 4, 6)
    Anime: Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann, 天元突破グレンラガン (Episodes 3, 15, 25)
    Anime: Panty & Stocking with Garterbelt, パンティ&ストッキングwithガーターベルト (Episode 2)
    Tuesday, July 27, 2021

    In anime, when a character stands with legs apart readying their sword (or other weapon) thrusting it forward, and the camera perspective is warped so the sword looks far bigger than normal, that's called a Sunrise Stance (サンライズ立ち), Sunrise Perspective (サンライズパース), Brave Perspective, Yuusha Perspective (勇者パース), Brave Stance, Yuusha Stance (勇者立ち), Fukuda Perspective (福田パース), or, in Chinese, 大張一刀流 (Oobari Ittouryuu?).(dic.pixiv.net:勇者パース, dic.nicovideo.jp:サンライズ立ち, tvtropes.org:SwordPointing)

    Anime: The Brave Fighter Exkizer, Yuusha Exkaiser, 勇者エクスカイザー (Episode 43)
    Anime: Onmyou Taisenki 陰陽大戦記 (Episode 20)
    Anime: Aikatsu Stars!, アイカツスターズ! (Episode 37)
    Anime: Hacka Doll The Animation, ハッカドール THE・あにめーしょん (Episode 9)